Cannabis Sativa and Indica

The Cannabis plant, often also referred to as marijuana, is today perhaps one of the best-known herbs on the planet. It gained popularity mainly because of its miraculous therapeutic effects, but also because of the many controversial views that are associated with its usage.

The herb belongs to the family of cannabis and is taxonomically further divided into other varieties. The most popular ones are Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. There are slight differences between them in terms of plant size, leaf shape and concentration of active substances, otherwise they are very similar and are therefore united under one name. Cannabis is a annual or biennial herb growing up to a height of 6 meters. Its stem is erect, gradually branching, from its branches gradually grow five to six palm leaves. The plant also produces inflorescences that are mostly yellowish or greenish in color. This part of the plant is also the richest in potent cannabinoids.

Cannabis plants are also divided by gender – they can be female or male. Females grow smaller, but produce more active ingredients and are therefore preferred for medical purposes. Male plants, on the other hand, have a lower concentration of active substances, but they are larger in size, producing more herbal matter and are used for technical purposes.

 

HISTORY

Cannabis has been grown by man since ancient times. It is believed that the origin of this plant is the region of Central Asia (Sativa) and India (Indica). However, due to its relatively undemanding cultivation conditions, the plant soon spread to other continents, especially to warmer areas with sufficient sunshine. In colder areas, which did not fully satisfy the needs of the plant to produce medicinal substances, cannabis was grown as a plant for the textile industry.

CHEMISTRY

The amount of active substances in the plant is really diverse. Each part of the plant contains a different concentration of substances and thus serves for different purposes.

Stems and leaves mainly contain fiber – they are therefore useful in the textile industry for fiber production. In terms of nutrients, the richest part of the plant is seeds. These contain unsaturated fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6, as well as a number of essential amino acids, building blocks and vitamins A, E and D. It is therefore clear that these seeds are referred to as superfoods.

In terms of effective cannabinoids, the richest part is flowers. There are many of them, but the best known are THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol). THC is primarily a psychoactive, narcotic that alters the user’s consciousness and is the cause of cannabis being outlawed in many countries. Cannabinoid CBD is not psychoactive and is responsible for the healing effects of cannabis. It has anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, relaxing, antioxidant, neuroprotective and analgesic effects.

Cannabis also contains terpenes, which are fragrant substances produced by the plant in the flowering phase. Each variety has a unique combination of terpenes that create a specific cannabis aroma. In recent years, it has been discovered that terpenes themselves also have therapeutic properties and complement the effects of cannabinoids.

EFFECTS

With its high concentration of active substances, cannabis is a recognized drug for a wide range of diseases. Healing effects are primarily attributed to cannabinoid CBD, but THC has also healing properties in addition to its psychoactive properties. Thus, the synergistic effect of both compounds is most suitable.

The plant helps on the physical level to treat the airways, alleviates asthma symptoms, clears blood vessels and is effective in treating digestive problems and nausea. It has thus become the primary means used by cancer patients to help alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy. Cannabis also has analgesic effects and relieves the pain of all kinds. It helps, for example, in migraines, muscle aches, and muscle cramps.

In recent years, cannabis has been shown to be a useful means of alleviating the symptoms of serious diseases such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. Cannabis is itself a powerful antioxidant – it supports the body’s vitality, immune system and longevity. Thanks to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, it can be used externally in the form of preparations such as ointments and creams, for example, to improve the quality of skin and hair, in the treatment of eczema and other skin diseases.

The active substances THC and CBD also have a high potential in the treatment of mental disorders – they relieve anxiety, tension, stress, help with insomnia.

DOSAGE OF CBD PRODUCTS

The optimal dosage of CBD products varies widely and depends on many factors – such as previous cannabinoid experience, the user’s genetic predisposition, weight, and health condition. It is therefore advisable to familiarize yourself with the preparations gradually and start from low doses.

The indicative dosage could look like this:

  • Overall health boost: 2.1-15 mg of CBD per day
  • Chronic pain: 2.5-20 mg of CBD per day for +/- 25 days
  • Sleep disorders: 40-160 mg of CBD per day
  • Epilepsy: 200-300 mg of CBD per day for up to 4.5 months
  • Huntington's disease related to movement problems: 10 mg / kg of body weight per day for 6 weeks
  • Symptoms of multiple sclerosis: 2.5 to 120 mg of CBD per day for 2-15 weeks
  • Schizophrenia: 40-1,280 mg of CBD per day
  • Depression: 5-10 mg of CBD per day
  • Lyme disease: 20-60mg of CBD per day
  • Tinnitus: 10-20 mg of CBD per day (5-10 mg in the morning, 5-10 mg in the evening)

Doses can best be measured when using oil. 10ml of oil have approx. 250 drops. The amount of CBD in one drop is then as follows:

  • 5% oil / 500mg / 10ml – 2mg in one drop
  • 10% oil / 1000mg / 10ml – 4mg in one drop
  • 20% oil / 2000mg / 10ml – 8mg in one drop

 

WAYS TO APPLY CBD PRODUCTS

CBD Oil – oral and sublingual application

The oil can be dosed in two ways – It can be dripped into food or drink and swallowed (oral administration) or drip directly under the tongue, allowing it to be absorbed for at least 60 seconds (sublingual application).

In the case of the first method of application, the first effects can be expected at approx. after 2 hours. CBD is absorbed into the bloodstream in the digestive tract. However, the effect lasts longer – up to 8 hours. In the second, sublingual route of administration, the first effects are almost immediate, beginning after only 10 minutes. The duration is then about 6 hours.

Dried flowers – vaporization and smoking

Sušené květy se jeví jako nejvhodnější typ CBD produktu. Obsahují totiž zpravidla kromě samotného CBD i stopové množství THC splňující legislativní normy (<0,3%) a také množství dalších látek jako jsou terpeny a flavonoidy. Tyto látky působí s CBD synergicky – navyšují jeho léčebné účinky. Květy je nejvhodnější užívat formou vaporizace. Vaporizace je proces, při kterém je konopí zahříváno na požadovanou teplotu pomocí vaporizéru. CBD se tak z květů začne uvolňovat ve formě výparů, které jsou inhalovány uživatelem. Tento způsob konzumace je ze všech nejefektivnější, účinky lze pozorovat téměř okamžitě. CBD květy lze také kouřit klasickým způsobem, který již však není tak efektivní. Dochází zde ke spalování bylinné sušiny a určité procento účinných látek je proto znehodnoceno.

CONTRAINDICATION

Although CBD has a high safety profile, when combined with other prescription medications, inappropriate effects may occur. In such a situation, it is necessary to consult it with your doctor.

Please note that this text is for informational and educational purposes only, it does not constitute professional medical or legal advice. We recommend consultation with your physician or specialist before using any CBD products.

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